11 July 2016 | Geo Risk
The so-called ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation), of which both the La Niña and El Niño phenomena are components, has a pronounced effect on regional weather around the world. The average sea surface temperature, based on a specific area of the equatorial Pacific, acts as a reference for determining which of the three climate oscillation phases is currently taking place. A distinction is made between the neutral phase and the El Niño and La Niña phenomena which, as contrasting configurations of the tropical ocean-atmosphere system in the Pacific Ocean, represent a natural climate fluctuation. Their impacts are felt all over the world due to so-called teleconnections/long-range effects, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions.