The shrine to Our Lady of Guadalupe was the most important Marian shrine in the medieval kingdom of Castile. It is revered in the monastery ofSanta María de Guadalupe, in today’s Cáceres province of the Extremadura autonomous community of Spain.
The shrine housed a statue reputed to have been carved by Luke the Evangelist and given to Saint Leander, archbishop of Seville, by Pope Gregory I. When Seville was taken by the Moors, a group of priests fled northward and buried the statue in the hills near the Guadalupe River inExtremadura. At the beginning of the 14th century, a shepherd claimed that the Virgin Mary had appeared to him and ordered him to ask priests to dig at the site of the apparition. Excavating priests rediscovered the hidden statue and built a small shrine around it which evolved into the great Guadalupe monastery.
Pilgrims began arriving in 1326, and in 1340, King Alfonso XI took a personal interest in the shrine’s development, attributing his victory over the Moors at the Battle of Rio Salado to the Virgin’s intercession. Our Lady of Guadalupe, along with Santiago de Compostela and Nuestra Señora del Pilar became rallying points for the Christian Spaniards in their reconquista of Iberia.
The Augustinians helped spread the devotion to Our Lady of Guadalupe (Extremadura) in the Philippines through mission works. The assignment of priests from Caceres, Spain contributed to the development of yet another devotion in this new Spanish territory. In 1843, an image of Our Lady of Guadalupe arrived in the Visayan province of Bohol. The image was brought from Spain by Augustinian Recollects who were charged to take care of ecclessiastical functions in Bohol after the expulsion of the Jesuits in the 18th century.
Two accounts, published in the 1640s, one in Spanish, one in Nahuatl, tell how, while walking from his village to Mexico City in the early morning of December 9, 1531 (then the Feast of the Immaculate Conception in the Spanish Empire), the peasant Juan Diego saw on the slopes of the Hill of Tepeyac a vision of a girl of fifteen or sixteen years of age, surrounded by light. Speaking to him in Nahuatl, the local language, she asked that a church be built at that site, in her honor; from her words, Juan Diego recognized the Lady as the Virgin Mary. Diego told his story to the Spanish Archbishop, Fray Juan de Zumárraga, who instructed him to return to Tepeyac Hill, and ask the lady for a miraculous sign to prove her identity. The Virgin told Juan Diego to gather flowers from the top of Tepeyac Hill. Although December was very late in the growing season for flowers to bloom, Juan Diego found at the usually barren hilltop Castilian roses, not native to Mexico, which the Virgin arranged in his peasant tilma cloak. When Juan Diego opened the cloak before Bishop Zumárraga on December 12, the flowers fell to the floor, and in their place was the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe, miraculously imprinted on the fabric.
The icon is now displayed in the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, one of the most visited Marian shrines. The icon is Mexico’s most popular religious and cultural image, bearing the titles: the Queen of Mexico, and was once proclaimed Patroness of the Philippines (but later revised) by Pope Pius XI in 1935. In 1999, Pope John Paul II proclaimed the Virgin Mary Patroness of the Americas, Empress of Latin America, and Protectress of Unborn Children under this Marian title.
In the earliest account of the apparition, the Nican Mopohua, written in the Nahuatl language around 1556, the Virgin Mary tells Juan Bernadino, the uncle ofJuan Diego, that the image left on the tilma is to be known by the name “the Perfect Virgin, Holy Mary of Guadalupe.”
Yet, there is no consensus among scholars today concerning how the name “Guadalupe” was ascribed to the image. The various theories can be grouped into two major camps. The first is that the Spanish misunderstood a Nahuatl name. The second is that the Spanish name “Guadalupe”, like the Spanish Our Lady of Guadalupe, Extremadura, is the original name.
The first theory to promote a Nahuatl origin was that of Luis Becerra Tanco.” In his 1675 work Felicidad de Mexico, Becerra Tanco claimed that Juan Bernardino and Juan Diego would not have been able to understand the name Guadalupe because the “d” and “g” sounds do not exist in Nahuatl. He proposed two Nahuatl alternative names that sound similar to “Guadalupe”, Tecuatlanopeuh [tekʷat͡ɬa’nopeʍ], “she whose origins were in the rocky summit”, and Tecuantlaxopeuh [tekʷant͡ɬa’ʃopeʍ], “she who banishes those who devoured us.”
It has also been suggested that the name is a Spanish version of the Nahuatl term, Coātlaxopeuh [koaːt͡ɬa’ʃopeʍ], meaning “the one who crushes the serpent” and that it may be referring to the feathered serpent Quetzacoatl.
The theory promoting the Spanish language origin of the name claims that:
- Juan Diego and Juan Bernardino would have been familiar with the Spanish language “g” and “d” sounds since their baptismal names contain those sounds.
- The lack of evidence of any other name for the Virgin during the almost 144 years between the apparition in 1531 and Becerra Tanco’s proposal in 1675, supports the Spanish “Guadalupe” as the original.
- Documents written by contemporary Spaniards and Franciscan Friars arguing for the name to be changed to a native name such as “Tepeaca” or “Tepeaquilla” would not make sense if there was already an original Nahuatl name, suggesting the Spanish “Guadalupe” was the original.
Following the Spanish Conquest in 1519–21, a temple of the mother-goddess Tonantzin at Tepeyac outside Mexico City, was destroyed and a chapel dedicated to the Virgin built on the site. Newly converted Indians continued to come from afar to worship there. The object of their worship, however, was equivocal, as they continued to address the Virgin Mary as Tonantzin.
According to tradition, the Virgin appeared to a Nahua man named Juan Diego in December 1531 on Tepeyac Hill, north of Mexico City, where there was a shrine dedicated to the female Aztec earth deity Tonantzin. To this day, in Nahuatl-speaking communities (in other communities as well), the Virgin continues to be called “Tonantzin” and her appearance is commemorated on December 12 each year.
|Figurine believed to be of Tonantzin, National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City|
Tonantzin means “Our Sacred Mother” in the Nahuatl language and she continues to be connected symbolically to fertility and the earth. It is not known precisely how the pre-Hispanic deity Tonantzin became connected to the Christian Virgin of Guadalupe, however, we can assume that many people of the time believed that her appearance represented a return of the Aztec mother deity.
The first record of the painting’s existence was in 1556, when Archbishop Alonso de Montufar, a Dominican, preached a sermon commending popular devotion to Our Lady of Guadalupe, in regards to a painting in the chapel at Tepeyac, where certain miracles had lately been performed. Days later he was answered by Francisco de Bustamante, head of the Colony’s Franciscans and guardians of the chapel at Tepeyac, who delivered a sermon before the Viceroy expressing his concern that the Archbishop was promoting a superstitious regard for a painting by a native artist, Marcos Cipac de Aquino:
The devotion that has been growing in a chapel dedicated to Our Lady, called of Guadalupe, in this city is greatly harmful for the natives, because it makes them believe that the image painted by Marcos the Indian is in any way miraculous.
The next day Archbishop Montufar opened an inquiry. The Franciscans repeated their claim that the image encouraged idolatry and superstition, and testified that it was painted by “Marcos the Indian.” Appearing before the Dominicans, who favored allowing the Aztecs to venerate the Guadalupe, was the Archbishop himself. The matter ended with the Franciscans deprived of custody of the shrine and the tilma mounted and displayed within a much enlarged church.
The first extended account of the image and the apparition is in Imagen de la Virgen Maria, Madre de Dios de Guadalupe, a guide to the cult for Spanish-speakers published in 1648 by Miguel Sanchez, a diocesan priest of Mexico City. A 36-page tract in Nahuatl language, Huei tlamahuiçoltica (“The Great Event”), was published in 1649 by Luis Lasso de la Vega, which has close affinity with Sánchez’s narrative. This tract contains Nican mopohua (“Here it is recounted”), a text about the Virgin which contains the story of the apparition and the supernatural origin of the image, plus two other sections, Nican motecpana (“Here is an ordered account”), describing fourteen miracles connected with Our Lady of Guadalupe, and Nican tlantica (“Here ends”), an account of the Virgin in New Spain.
The growing fame of the image led to a parallel interest in Juan Diego. In 1666 the Church, with the aim of establishing a feast day in his name, began gathering information from people who reported having known him, and in 1723 a formal investigation into his life was ordered, and much information was gathered. In 1987, under Pope John Paul II, who took a special interest in saints and in non-European Catholics, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints declared him “venerable”, and on May 6, 1990, he was beatified by the Pope himself during Mass at the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City, being declared “protector and advocate of the indigenous peoples,” with December 9 as his feast day.
At this point historians and theologians began to question the quality of the evidence regarding Juan Diego. There is no mention of him or his miraculous vision in the writings of bishop Zumárraga, into whose hands he delivered the miraculous image, nor in the record of the ecclesiastical inquiry of 1556, which omits him entirely, nor anywhere else before the mid-17th century. Doubts as to his reality were not new: in 1883 Joaquín García Icazbalceta, historian and biographer of Zumárraga, in a confidential report on the Lady of Guadalupe for Bishop Labastida, was very hesitant to support the story of the apparition and stated his conclusion that there was never such a person. Neither were they welcome: as recently as 1996 the 83 year old abbot of the Basilica of Guadalupe, Guillermo Schulenburg, was forced to resign following an interview with the Catholic magazine Ixthus, when he said that Juan Diego was “a symbol, not a reality.”
In 1995, with progress towards sanctification at a stand-still, Father Xavier Escalada, a Jesuit writing an encyclopedia of the Guadalupan legend, produced a deer skin codex, (Codex Escalada), illustrating the apparition and the life and death of Juan Diego. Although the very existence of this important document had been previously unknown, it bore the date 1548, placing it within the lifetime of those who had known Juan Diego, and bore the signatures of two trustworthy 16th century scholar-priests, Antonio Valeriano and Bernardino de Sahagún, thus verifying its contents. Some scholars remained unconvinced, describing the discovery of the Codex as “rather like finding a picture of St. Paul’s vision of Christ on the road to Damascus, drawn by St. Luke and signed by St. Peter“, but Diego was declared a saint, with the name of Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, in 2002.
The iconography of the Virgin is impeccably Catholic: Miguel Sanchez, the author of the 1648 tract Imagen de la Virgen María, described her as the Woman of the Apocalypse from the New Testament‘s Revelation 12:1, “clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars,” and she is also described as a representation of the Immaculate Conception. Yet despite this orthodoxy the image also had a hidden layer of coded messages for the indigenous people of Mexico which goes a considerable way towards explaining her popularity. Her blue-green mantle was the color reserved for the divine couple Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl; her belt is interpreted as a sign of pregnancy; and a cross-shaped image symbolizing the cosmos and called nahui-ollin is inscribed beneath the image’s sash. She was called “mother of maguey,” the source of the sacred beverage pulque, “the milk of the Virgin”, and the rays of light surrounding her doubled as maguey spines.
Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe is recognized as a symbol of all Catholic Mexicans. Miguel Sánchez, the author of the first Spanish language apparition account, identified Guadalupe as Revelation‘s Woman of the Apocalypse, and said:
this New World has been won and conquered by the hand of the Virgin Mary … [who had] prepared, disposed, and contrived her exquisite likeness in this her Mexican land, which was conquered for such a glorious purpose, won that there should appear so Mexican an image.
Throughout the Mexican national history of the 19th and 20th centuries, the Guadalupan name and image have been unifying national symbols; the firstPresident of Mexico (1824–29) changed his name from José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix to Guadalupe Victoria in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Father Miguel Hidalgo, in the Mexican War of Independence (1810), and Emiliano Zapata, in the Mexican Revolution (1910) led their respective armed forces with Guadalupan flags emblazoned with an image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. In 1999, the Church officially proclaimed her thePatroness of the Americas, the Empress of Latin America, and the Protectress of Unborn Children.
In 1810 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla initiated the bid for Mexican independence with his Grito de Dolores, with the cry “Death to the Spaniards and long live the Virgin of Guadalupe!” When Hidalgo’s mestizo-indigenous army attacked Guanajuato and Valladolid, they placed “the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe, which was the insignia of their enterprise, on sticks or on reeds painted different colors” and “they all wore a print of the Virgin on their hats.” After Hidalgo’s death leadership of the revolution fell to a zambo/mestizo priest named José María Morelos, who led insurgent troops in the Mexican south. Morelos adopted the Virgin as the seal of his Congress of Chilpancingo, inscribing her feast day into the Chilpancingo constitution and declaring that Guadalupe was the power behind his victories:
New Spain puts less faith in its own efforts than in the power of God and the intercession of its Blessed Mother, who appeared within the precincts of Tepeyac as the miraculous image of Guadalupe that had come to comfort us, defend us, visibly be our protection.
Simón Bolívar noticed the Guadalupan theme in these uprisings, and shortly before Morelos’ execution in 1815 wrote: “the leaders of the independence struggle have put fanaticism to use by proclaiming the famous Virgin of Guadalupe as the queen of the patriots, praying to her in times of hardship and displaying her on their flags … the veneration for this image in Mexico far exceeds the greatest reverence that the shrewdest prophet might inspire.” One of Morelos’ officers, Félix Fernández, would later become the first president of Mexico, even changing his name to Guadalupe Victoria.
In 1914, Emiliano Zapata‘s peasant army rose out of the south against the government of Porfirio Díaz. Though Zapata’s rebel forces were primarily interested in land reform – “tierra y libertad” (land and liberty) was the slogan of the uprising – when his peasant troops penetrated Mexico City they carried Guadalupan banners. More recently, the contemporary Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) named their “mobile city” in honor of the Virgin: it is called Guadalupe Tepeyac. EZLN spokesperson Subcomandante Marcos wrote a humorous letter in 1995 describing the EZLN bickering over what to do with a Guadalupe statue they had received as a gift.
Hernán Cortés, the Conquistador who overthrew the Aztec empire in 1521, was a native of Extremadura, home to Our Lady of Guadalupe. By the 16th century the Extremadura Guadalupe, a statue of the Virgin said to be carved by Saint Luke the Evangelist, was already a national icon. It was found at the beginning of the 14th century when the Virgin appeared to a humble shepherd and ordered him to dig at the site of the apparition. The recovered Virgin then miraculously helped to expel the Moors from Spain, and her small shrine evolved into the great Guadalupe monastery. One of the more remarkable attributes of the Guadalupe of Extremadura is that she is dark, like the Americans, and thus she became the perfect icon for the missionaries who followed Cortés to convert the natives to Christianity.
In Aztec mythology and among present-day Nahuas, Tonantzin ‘Our Revered Mother’ is a general title bestowed upon female deities. Informants of Sahagún, for example, called a frightening goddess of war and childbirth, Cihuacoatl, by this title. The title is particularly believed to refer to Mother Earth.
Goddesses such as “Mother Earth”, the “Goddess of Sustenance”, “Honored Grandmother”, “Snake”, “Bringer of Maize” and “Mother of Corn” can all be called Tonantzin. Other indigenous names include Chicomexochitl (“Seven Flowers”) and Chalchiuhcihuatl (“Woman of Precious Stone”). A Tonantzin was honored during the movable feast of Xochilhuitl. Upon appearance of Our Lady of Guadalupe in the hill of Tepeyac where Tonatzin’s temple had been burnt by the Spanish priests, the natives accepted Our Lady of Guadalupe as Tonatzin.
Mexico City‘s 17th-century Basilica of Guadalupe–built in honor of the Virgin and perhaps Mexico’s most important religious building—was constructed at the base of the hill of Tepeyac, believed to be a site used for pre-Columbian worship of Tonantzin. Coatlaxopeuh meaning “the one who crushes the serpent” and that it may be referring to the feathered serpent Quetzalcoatl.
According to the traditional account, the name of Guadalupe was chosen by the Virgin herself when she appeared on the hill outside Mexico City in 1531, ten years after the Conquest. According to secular history, in 1555 Bishop Alonso de Montúfar commissioned a Virgin of Guadalupe from a native artist, who gave her the dark skin which his own people shared with the famous Extremadura Virgin. Whatever the connection between the Mexican and her older Spanish namesake, the fused iconography of the Virgin and the indigenous Nahua goddess Tonantzin provided a way for 16th-century Spaniards to gain converts among the indigenous population, while simultaneously allowing 16th century Mexicans to continue the practice of their native religion.
Guadalupe continues to be a mixture of the cultures which blended to form Mexico, both racially and religiously, “the first mestiza“, or “the first Mexican”. “bringing together people of distinct cultural heritages, while at the same time affirming their distinctness.” As Jacques Lafayewrote in Quetzalcoatl and Guadalupe, “as the Christians built their first churches with the rubble and the columns of the ancient pagan temples, so they often borrowed pagan customs for their own cult purposes.” The author Judy King asserts that Guadalupe is a “common denominator” uniting Mexicans. Writing that Mexico is composed of a vast patchwork of differences – linguistic, ethnic, and class-based – King says “The Virgin of Guadalupe is the rubber band that binds this disparate nation into a whole.” The Mexican novelist Carlos Fuentes once said that “you cannot truly be considered a Mexican unless you believe in the Virgin of Guadalupe.” Nobel Literature laureate Octavio Paz wrote in 1974 that “the Mexican people, after more than two centuries of experiments, have faith only in the Virgin of Guadalupe and the National Lottery”.
With the Papal Brief Non Est Equidem of May 25, 1754, Pope Benedict XIV declared Our Lady of Guadalupe patron of what was then called New Spain, corresponding to Spanish Central and Northern America, and approved liturgical texts for the Holy Mass and the Breviary in her honor. Pope Leo XIII granted new texts in 1891 and authorized coronation of the image in 1895. Pope Pius X proclaimed her patron of Latin America in 1910.Pope Pius XII declared the Virgin of Guadalupe “Queen of Mexico and Empress of the Americas” in 1945, and “Patroness of the Americas” in 1946. Pope John XXIII invoked her as “Mother of the Americas” in 1961, referring to her as Mother and Teacher of the Faith of All American populations, and in 1966 Pope Paul VI sent a Golden Rose to the shrine.
In July 16, 1935, Pope Pius XI declared Our Lady of Guadalupe to be the Heavenly Patroness of the Philippines and was signed and attested byVatican Secretary of State, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII). This was revised in September 12, 1942, when Guadalupe became the secondary “Patroness of the Philippines” when Pope Pius XII installed the Immaculate Conception as the Principal Patroness of the Filipino people through the Papal Bull Impositi Nobis, though her feast day is still widely celebrated in the archipelago. Today, the Blessed Virgin Mary under this title of Our Lady of Guadalupe is especially invoked by the Catholic bishops and laypeople who oppose the legalization of abortionand the passage of the Philippine Reproductive Health Bill.
Pope John Paul II visited the shrine in the course of his first journey outside Italy as Pope from January 26–31, 1979, and again when he beatified Juan Diego there on May 6, 1990. In 1992 he dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe a chapel within St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican. At the request of the Special Assembly for the Americas of the Synod of Bishops, he named Our Lady of Guadalupe patron of the Americas on January 22, 1999 (with the result that her liturgical celebration had, throughout the Americas, the rank ofsolemnity), and visited the shrine again on the following day.
On July 31, 2002, the Pope canonized Juan Diego before a crowd of 12 million, and later that year included in the General Calendar of the Roman Rite, as optional memorials, the liturgical celebrations of Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin (December 9) and Our Lady of Guadalupe (December 12).
The shrine of the Virgin of Guadalupe is the most visited Catholic pilgrimage destination in the world. Over the Friday and Saturday of December 11 to 12, 2009, a record number of 6.1 million pilgrims visited the Basilica of Guadalupe in Mexico City to commemorate the anniversary of the apparition.
The Virgin of Guadalupe is considered the Patroness of Mexico and the Continental Americas; she is also venerated by Native Americans, on the account of the devotion calling for the conversion of the Americas. Replicas of the tilma can be found in thousands of churches throughout the world, and numerous parishes bear her name.
Due to a claim that her black girdle indicates pregnancy on the image, the Blessed Virgin Mary, under this title is popularly invoked as Patroness of the Unborn and a common image for the Pro-Life movement.
Compiled by Frank González
According to tradition, the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared to Juan Diego, an Indian, on a hill near the outskirts of Mexico City on a December morning in 1531. Before the Conquest, the site of her apparition, Tepeyac, had been a sacred place dedicated to the Aztec goddess, Tonantzin. Her image, imprinted on Juan Diego’s mantle, was one of a brown-skinned madonna with pre-Columbian vestiges, and struck a chord with her early supplicants. A cult soon developed around “La Morenita.” She was adopted as a symbol of Mexican nationalism, and has become a rallying point for political and social movements from the Mexican countryside of the insurgents to the fields of CaliforniaÕs farmworkers. To her devotees, La Virgen de Guadalupe invokes faith, hope, and compassion; she embraces the cause of the poor, the ignored, the voiceless, the oppressed. In short, La Reina de México and Emperatriz de las Américas, as she is often referred to, has left a profound impact of the religious and cultural life of Mexicans and Mexican Americans.
The works listed below are a representative sampling of both popular and scholarly books and articles on the Virgin of Guadalupe in English in the University of Texas at Austin General Libraries. Additional sources, including a great many in Spanish, can be found in UTCAT, the online library catalog, using the subject search “Guadalupe, Our Lady of”. Electronic resources are also listed below.
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Burrus, Ernest J. The Basic Bibliography of the Guadalupan Apparitions (1531-1723). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate, 1983.
BT 660 G8 B874 1983 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham. A Dictionary of Miracles: Imitative, Realistic, and Dogmatic. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1934.
BT 97 B8 1934 PCL — PCL Reference Department
New Catholic Encyclopedia. 16 vols. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967-1974. s.v. “Guadalupe, Our Lady of” (vol. 6).
-Q- BX 841 N44 1967 V.6 LAC — Latin American Reference Collection
Deedy, John G., The Catholic Fact Book. Chicago: T. More Press, 1986.
BX 842 D44 1986 PCL — PCL Reference Department
POPULAR AND SCHOLARLY BOOKS AND ARTICLES
Brading, D. A. The First America: The Spanish Monarchy, Creole Patriots, and the Liberal State, 1492-1867. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. See the index for numerous references to the significance of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexican religious and national life.
F 1412 B79 1991 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Burkhart, Louise M. “The Cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico.” In South and Meso-American Native Spirituality: From the Cult of the Feathered Serpent to the Theology of Liberation, New York: Crossroad, 1993.
E 59 R38 S68 1993 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Cawley, Martinus, Anthology of Early Guadalupan Literature. Lafayette, IN: Guadalupe Abbey, 1984.
BT 660 G82 C39 1984 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Elizondo, Virgilio P. La Morenita: Evangelizer of the Americas. San Antonio: Mexican American Cultural Center, 1980.
BT 660 G8 E435 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Gil, Carlos B. “Withstanding Time: The Miracle of the Virgin of Guadalupe.” Nuestro 7 (December 1983): 46-47.
E 184 A1 N847 V.7 1983 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Guerrero, Andrés Gonzales. A Chicano Theology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1987.
BT 83.57 G84 1987 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Johnston, Francis W. The Wonder of Guadalupe: The Origin and Cult of the Miraculous Image of the Blessed Virgin in Mexico. Chulmleigh, Devon: Augustine Pub. Co., 1981.
BT 660 G8 J638 1981M LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Kurtz, Donald V. “The Virgin of Guadalupe and the Politics of Becoming Human.” Journal of Anthropological Research 38 (Summer 1982): 194-210.
GN 1 S64 V.38 1982 PCL — PCL stacks
Lafaye, Jacques. Quetzalcoatl and Guadalupe: The Formation of Mexican National Consciousness, 1531-1813. Foreword by Octavio Paz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
F 1210 L313 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Lampe, Philip E. “Our Lady of Guadalupe and Ethnic Prejudice.” Borderlands Journal 9 (Spring 1986): 91-120.
AP 2 S714 V.7-9 1983/86 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Matovina, Timothy M. “Guadalupan Devotion in a Borderlands Community.” Journal of Hispanic/Latino Theology 4 ( August 1996): 6-26.
BX 1407 H55 J684 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Poole, Stafford. Our Lady of Guadalupe: The Origins and Sources of a Mexican National Symbol, 1531-1797. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1995.
BT 660 G8 P66 1995 LAC — Benson Collection stacks; another copy in PCL stacks
Rodriguez, Jeanette. Our Lady of Guadalupe: Faith and Empowerment Among Mexican-American Women. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994.
BT 660 G8 R58 1994 LAC — Benson Collection stacks
Taylor, William B. “The Virgin of Guadalupe in New Spain: An Inquiry into the Social History of Marian Devotion.” American Ethnologist, 14 (February 1987): 9-33.
GN 1 A53 V.14 1987 PCL — PCL stacks
Wolfe, Eric R. “The Virgin of Guadalupe: A Mexican National Symbol.” Journal of American Folklore 71 (1958): 34-39.
398.305 J82 V.71 1958 PCL — PCL stacks
De Paola, Tomie. The Lady of Guadalupe. New York: Holiday House, 1980.
BT 660 G8 D43 LAC-JE — Benson Collection stacks
Winterhalt, A.M. The Mysterious Picture. Hicksville: Exposition Press, 1975.
PZ 9 W535 LAC-JE — Benson Collection stacks